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在职硕士联考英语备考:副词 
2015年09月01日 【我要咨询】 来源:清大在线

 

       (1) 副词的分类

       副词按其词义和作用,可分为下列几类:

      1) 时间副词: 如now, yesterday, soon, next, last, before, already, yet, early, late, ago等2) 频度副词: 如never, sometimes, often, usually, hardly, seldom, always, frequently等.

       3) 地点副词: 如here, there, somewhere, everywhere, up, down, in, out, on, off, over,away等;

        4) 方式副词: 如well, fast, quickly. slowly. together等
        5) 程度副词: 如 very, so, too, enough, rather, fairly, much, little, quite, almost 等
        6) 疑问.连接副词: 如 when, where, why, how, however等
 
       (2) 副词的用法:

       1) 修饰形容词: The flower is very beautiful.

       2) 修饰动词: He studies hard.

       3) 修饰其他副词: He works very hard.

       4)修饰名词词组: Even a child can do it.

        5) 修饰全句: Probably he will come back.

       (3) 副词的构成

        1) 大多数副词是由形容词加后缀-ly 构成的; 如: politely, sadly2) 当形容词以-y 结尾时, 在加 -ly 之前,先变 y 为 i: heavily, busily3) 以 -le 结尾时, 去e 加 -y 即可: simply, ably4) 以 -ll 结尾时, 只须加 -y: dully, shrilly5) 以-ic 结尾时 , 则在-ic 之后加 -ally; economically, basically6) 有些副词由介词或地点名词加后缀-ward(s)构成, 意义是"向...." 如: backward(s),downward(s), forward(s), northward(s), onward(s), upward(s) 等7) 另外, 有些副词是由名词加后缀 -wise 构成, 表示方向, 位置, 状态, 样子等; 如:clockwise, lengthwise 等。

       (4) 与形容词同形的副词

        有些形容词与副词同形, 但有着不同的句法功能。

        如: We had an early breakfast

        We had breakfast early

        有些表示时间的词可同时用作形容词和副词。 如:daily, weekly, quarterly, monthly, yearly
  
        (5) 兼有两种形式的副词

        有些副词有两种形式: 一是与形容词同形, 二是由该形容词加-ly 构成。这两种不同的形式, 有些含义相同, 有些略不同, 有些完全不同。如a) close 作"近"解:

        He works close to his home.

       He was following close behind.

       作其它解释时用closely:

       Watch what I do closely.

       The prisons were closely guarded.

        b) dead 作"突然地" " 完全地" 解:

        She stopped dead.

        在非正式用语中作" 完全地" "直接地"解:

        He was dead tired. / The wind was dead against us.

        deadly 作"死一般地" 或"非常"解, 例如

        deadly pale, deadly serious, deadly dull 等。