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2014联考英语阅读:阻止ISIS扩张的关键

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2014年08月22日 【我要咨询】 】 来源:清大在线

  Iraq’s new leader will fail without western support

  What is it about political leaders installed by America in third world countries? It seems they never want to leave office. It started in Vietnam in the 1960s, where the CIA ruthlessly removed Vietnamese leaders who at first were useful to the US occupation, but refused to step down when they were not.美国在第三世界国家扶植的政治领袖是怎么回事?他们似乎从不愿意下台。20世纪60年代的越南是一个开端,美国中央情报局(CIA)无情地铲除了不止一个开始对美国占领南越有用、后来变得没用的时候却拒绝下台的南越领导人。

  President Hamid Karzai of Afghanistan was a darling of Washington after the attacks of September 11 2001. Now he is a hate figure in the US capital, alleged to have allowed rigged elections that have plunged the country into an ethnic crisis that pitches Pashtuns against Tajiks.2001年9/11恐怖袭击后,阿富汗总统哈米德?卡尔扎伊(Hamid Karzai)一度是华盛顿看中的人。而现在他成了华盛顿的眼中钉,被指允许选举舞弊,使国家陷入一场普什图族(Pashtun)与塔吉克族(Tajik)对抗的民族危机。

  And then there is Iraqi Prime Minister Nouri al-Maliki. For months, most Iraqis and foreign diplomats have been united in one chorus: “anyone but Maliki.”还有伊拉克的努里?马利基(Nouri al-Maliki)。数月以来,绝大多数伊拉克人和外国外交官都发出了一致的声音:“任何人都行,除了马利基”。

  The tragedy with all these leaders – worthy of Shakespearean drama – is that they never know when to give up. The trouble is that they consider themselves indispensable. They are chosen for their willingness to lead inclusively, but they soon give one ethnic or religious group all the power.这些领导人堪比莎士比亚戏剧的可悲之处在于,他们从不知道何时应该放弃。问题是他们认为自己是不可或缺的。当年他们之所以被选中,是因为他们愿意以包容的方式领导国家,但他们上台后很快就将全部的权力赋予一个民族或者宗教群体。

  So it was with the Shia leader Mr Maliki, who was elected with US and Iranian blessing in 2006 and for a second time, albeit more reluctantly, in 2010. He lost the trust of everyone, including his fellow Shia in Iran.什叶派(Shia)领导人马利基便是如此。2006年,他在美国和伊朗的支持下当选,2010年他第二次当选,尽管这次两国的态度变得勉强了。他失去了所有人的信任,包括伊朗的什叶派。

  Even before the April elections, many were hoping he would step aside. Ultimately it was Iran’s displeasure at his inability to command broad support, and his refusal to admit Sunnis into his government, that forced him to step aside. Iranian Supreme Leader Ayatollah Ali Khamenei, had publicly distanced himself from Mr Maliki for months, as had Iraq’s most influential cleric, Grand Ayatollah Ali al-Sistani. In his last days he had called up troops and threatened a military coup, but it was of no use.在今年4月的选举之前,就有许多人希望马利基让位。最终,伊朗的不满使他无法赢得广泛支持,而正是因为他拒绝让逊尼派(Sunni)人士进入他领导的政府,导致他不得不让位。数月以来,伊朗的最高领袖阿亚图拉?阿里?哈梅内伊(Ayatollah Ali Khamenei)以及伊拉克最有影响力的宗教人士“大阿雅图拉席斯塔尼”(Grand Ayatollah Ali al-Sistani)都公开撇清与马利基的关系。在马利基在位的最后时期,他曾召集军队、威胁发起军事政变,但都无济于事。

  Mr Maliki’s replacement is Haider al-Abadi, 62, a member of Mr. Maliki’s own Dawa party, also a Shia, who was chosen on Monday by Iraq’s president. Mr Abadi is being asked to rise above sectarianism and create an inclusive national unity government that satisfies the minorities, particularly the Sunnis.接替马利基的是现年62岁的海德尔?阿巴迪(Haider al-Abadi)。他也属于什叶派,是马利基所在的达瓦党(Dawa party)成员。8月11日,伊拉克总统任命他为新总理。阿巴迪被要求超越宗派主义,缔造一个包容的民族团结政府以满足少数民族,特别是逊尼派的诉求。

  Mr Abadi will not be able to achieve anything at home or abroad until he forms a broad-based government. It will not help if Mr Maliki is given another important post in the new government to keep him quiet, as rumours in Baghdad portend. His time is over, his political baggage too much. He should go home or into exile.除非阿巴迪能够建立一个有广泛基础的政府,否则他无法在国内或者国外实现任何事情。如果为了安抚马利基而安排他在新政府中担任另一个重要职位(这样的流言已经在巴格达抬头),那将对事情毫无助益。他的时代结束了,他的政治包袱太大。他应该要么回家,要么流亡。

  Iraq desperately needs a government of national consensus to face the military onslaught from the Islamic State in Iraq and the Levant (Isis), which now controls perhaps one-third of the country. Iran is just as scared of Isis as the Americans are.伊拉克迫切需要一个能够凝聚民族共识的政府,以应对“伊拉克和黎凡特伊斯兰国”(Isis)的军事攻击。Isis可能已经控制了这个国家的三分之一。伊朗和美国一样害怕Isis。

  Isis is also targeting Syria, Jordan and Lebanon, but it is the cohesion of Iraq which is vital because it has borders with all these important Arab states. If Iraq does not hang together and is divided up by Isis and others, there is little doubt that it could lead to the balkanization of the entire Arab world at the hands of Islamic extremists.Isis的目标还包括叙利亚、约旦和黎巴嫩,但伊拉克的团结最为关键,因为伊拉克与所有这些重要的阿拉伯国家接壤。如果伊拉克无法保持统一,而是被Isis及其他势力分割,毫无疑问这会导致整个阿拉伯世界在伊斯兰主义极端分子的手中陷入巴尔干化。

  One key for Iraq’s salvation is winning back the trust of the international community. Washington applied pressure on Mr Maliki by withholding important arms supplies to Iraq such as fighter bombers until he stepped down.拯救伊拉克的一个关键是赢回国际社会的信任。此前华盛顿方面通过暂停向伊拉克供应重要武器(如战斗轰炸机)向马利基施压,直至他下台。

  Now that he has gone, the US needs to fulfil its promises as soon as possible. Iraq lacks a proper air force. Its army is also in disarray and needs international help to make it a sufficiently strong enough force to take on Isis and win.现在马利基已经下台,美国需要尽快兑现自己的承诺。伊拉克缺乏一支有力的空军,其陆军同样也处于混乱状态,需要国际社会提供帮助以将其打造成一支足够强大、能够迎战Isis并取胜的军队。

  Iraq’s crisis is multiple and intensely complicated – nobody had even heard of the Yazidis until Isis began to massacre them and they escaped into the mountains of northern Iraq. Few can focus on the fact that, in June and July alone, the war against Isis has created half a million more internally displaced Iraqis. UN agencies cannot cope.伊拉克的危机是多重的,而且极端复杂——以前没有人听说过亚齐德人(Yazidi),直到Isis开始屠杀他们,迫使他们逃到伊拉克北部的山中。很少有人能关注到以下事实:仅仅6月到7月,与Isis的战争就已经造成了50万伊拉克人在国内流离失所。联合国(UN)机构难以应付。

  Imagine what else lies in store. Imagine the consequences for the entire Middle East if Mr Abidi’s new government were to fail. Imagine if Isis were to have a free run of Iraq with all its sensitive borders. It is time for the west to show much greater support for the government in Baghdad.想想未来还有什么等待着我们。想想如果阿巴迪的新政府失败了会给整个中东带来什么后果。想想如果有着诸多敏感国界线的伊拉克被Isis自由支配会发生什么。西方是时候对巴格达的新政府展示更大的支持了。

  Ahmed Rashid is best-selling author of several books about Afghanistan, Pakistan and Central Asia, most recently ‘Descent into Chaos’.艾哈迈德?拉希德(Ahmed Rashid)是一位畅销书作者,出版了几本关于阿富汗、巴基斯坦和中亚的著作。最新著作是《陷入混乱》(Descent into Chaos)

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