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2014联考英语阅读:在朝鲜教授现代商业课

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2014年07月25日 【我要咨询】 】 来源:清华在线

  Two years after Geoffrey See first visited North Korea, the Yale postgraduate rec--eived a message from a Pyongyang government official seeking his help.耶鲁研究生施国兴(Geoffrey See)在初次访问朝鲜两年后,收到了平壤一位政府官员请他帮忙的信。

  It was near the end of 2009, soon after a currency devaluation had virtually wiped out the savings of many North Korean small traders. The reform was a disaster, prompting rare bouts of civil unrest and the execution of the finance official supposedly responsible.那是在2009年底,一轮货币贬值刚刚让许多朝鲜小商贩的积蓄几乎变得毫无价值。这是一场灾难性的改革,引发了少有的民众骚乱,被认为应为相关政策负责的财政官员受到处决。

  But the request from Pyongyang provided a vital opportunity for Mr See, then 24, who had already spent months seeking ways to run business training schemes in North Korea. He now runs Choson Exchange, a non-profit group that has trained hundreds of North Koreans in modern management practices.但来自平壤的请求为当年24岁的施国兴提供了难得的机会,他当时已经花费数月时间,探索如何在朝鲜开办商务培训课程。他现在经营着朝鲜交流中心(Choson Exchange),这家非营利机构已经为数百名朝鲜人进行了现代管理实践培训。

  “The currency reform?.?.?.?made them aware that there were a lot of things that they didn’t know about,” says Mr See. When he received the invitation to organise a training programme on exchange rates, he enlisted friends from banking and economic development agencies to run a finance workshop in Pyongyang.“这场货币改革……让他们意识到,还有许多他们不懂的事情,”施国兴表示。他受邀组织一项汇率培训课程,为此他请来银行界和经济发展机构的朋友,在平壤举办了一场金融研讨会。

  Since then, Choson Exchange has won the blessing of its North Korean government partners to run training programmes – in both North Korea and Mr See’s native Singapore – at growing scale and frequency. More than 180 trainees took part in the first quarter of this year alone.之后,朝鲜交流中心得到了其在朝鲜政府中的合作伙伴的支持,在朝鲜和施国兴的祖国新加坡开展培训项目,规模越办越大,课越开越多。光是今年一季度,就有超过180名学员参加培训。

  The courses are designed to support North Korea’s growing numbers of small-business owners, as the state shows increasing flexibility towards breaches of its collectivist official dog-ma in its efforts to revitalise a long-stagnant economy. Most Choson Exchange trainees work at state companies or institutions. But others are running small enterprises, typically restaurants or cafés, and the programme hopes to encourage more Koreans to follow suit.这些课程旨在支持朝鲜越来越多的小企业主。为了振兴长期停滞的经济,朝鲜在突破官方的集体主义教条方面表现出越来越大的灵活性。朝鲜交流中心的学员大部分在国有企业或事业机构工作,但也有人经营小企业,通常为餐馆和咖啡厅。培训项目希望吸引更多朝鲜人加入。

  The sessions in North Korea involve a foreign volunteer – usually an entrepreneur, or a marketing expert – giving a talk on western business practices, with the aid of an interpreter.在朝鲜开设的课程中,通常由一位外国志愿者——企业家或营销专家——在翻译的帮助下讲解西方商业实践。

  “There’s a broad set of vocabulary that is missing” where business is concerned, notes Andray Abrahamian, executive director of Choson Exchange. “When the workshop lead-er delivers a sentence, the translator might speak for a couple of minutes to make sure the message got through.”朝鲜交流中心执行董事安德烈?阿布拉哈米扬(Andray Abrahamian)表示,朝鲜语在商业方面“缺乏大量词汇”。“研讨会主讲人说出一个句子,为了准确传达意思,翻译可能会说上好几分钟。”

  Workshop leaders have lectured on topics from corporate social responsibility to asset-liability management. Practical exercises focus on skills that participants can use, from planning a business strategy to practising catering to customer tastes with role-play drills where they make paper toys for which they must find a buyer.研讨会主讲人的讲座话题包括企业社会责任和资产负债管理等等。实践课程注重学员用得到的技能,从企业战略规划到练习如何迎合顾客品味——如在角色扮演练习中制作纸玩具,学员必须为玩具找到买家。

  “What they lack is what people pick up just by growing up in a western economy. Seeing businesses succeed and fail gives an understanding of how customer relationships work,” says Nils Weisensee, a Shanghai-based entrepreneur who joined Choson Exchange last year.“他们缺乏那些人们在西方经济环境下成长过程中能学习到的东西。观察企业的成败,能让人理解客户关系是怎么起作用的,”去年加入朝鲜交流中心、在上海工作的企业家尼尔斯?魏森塞(Nils Weisensee)表示。

  Mr See worked at the consulting group Bain in Boston for a year while getting Choson Exchange off the ground, and the training programmes are suffused with modern business buzzwords, from lean production to ecommerce.施国兴曾在波士顿咨询集团贝恩(Bain)工作过一年,期间他启动了朝鲜交流中心计划。他的培训项目充满了现代的商业热词,如精益生产和电子商务。

  Such terms sit oddly with North Korea’s official ideology, which continues to praise the “monolithic leadership system” under supreme leader Kim Jong Un. When Mr Kim’s uncle and top adviser Jang Song Thaek was executed last year, his “decadent capitalist lifestyle” was cited among his crimes.这些词汇与朝鲜的官方意识形态格格不入,后者仍在颂扬最高领袖金正恩(Kim Jong Un)领导下的“唯一领导体制”。去年,金正恩的姑父、高层顾问张成泽(Jang Song Thaek)被处决,其罪名中罗列了“腐化的资本主义生活方式”一条。

  Yet Pyongyang has been showing interest in foreign practices as it battles to progress towards Mr Kim’s promised “thriving socialist country”. North Korea’s ambassador to London, Hyon Hak Bong, told the Financial Times in an interview earlier this year of research visits to countries such as Singapore and Malaysia to learn from their successful development. “We want to learn from advanced economies but some countries keep their doors closed,” he said.但朝鲜政府对国外的做法表现出兴趣,因为它正努力向金正恩承诺的“繁荣富强的社会主义国家”前进。朝鲜驻英国大使玄鹤峰(Hyon Hak Bong)今年早些时候曾接受英国《金融时报》采访,他提到,朝鲜派人前往新加坡和马来西亚等国调研,学习它们的成功发展经验。“我们希望向先进经济体学习,但一些国家仍对我们关上大门。”

  Analysts say the state’s increasingly sanguine attitude towards the market is largely a pragmatic res-ponse to a growing private economy that it was unable to suppress. When the state distribution system broke down in the early 1990s, famine forced people to resort to private trade to survive. Now the network of black markets continues to flourish, providing sustenance for millions of North Koreans.分析人士表示,朝鲜对市场的态度越发积极,原因是它已经无法压制不断增长的私营经济,于是做出务实的回应。20世纪90年代初,朝鲜国家分配系统崩溃,饥荒迫使人们开展私人交易,以求生存。如今,黑市依然繁荣,为成百上千万朝鲜人提供食物。

  They are usually ramshackle marketplaces, selling goods from foodstuffs to consumer electronics. Choson Exchange mainly helps upper-middle class people who run, or hope to run, businesses in Pyongyang. Yet even these relatively privileged entrepreneurs are on precarious ground in a country where private enterprise re-mains officially off-limits. Most of their businesses are nominally part of a state-owned enterprise: in practice, this arrangement gives managers autonomy in running their business, provided they distribute part of their profits to the state company.黑市通常是破旧不堪的市场,出售从食品到电器等各类商品。朝鲜交流中心主要帮助那些在平壤经商或希望在平壤经商的中上阶层。但在私企仍然被官方禁止的朝鲜,这些相对优越的企业家处境危险。名义上,他们的企业大多数还是国有企业的一部分,这种安排实际上允许管理者自主经营企业,而条件是他们将一部分利润上交国企。

  “The legal framework in which they operate is convoluted,” says Mr Abrahamian.阿布拉哈米扬表示:“他们经商的法律环境很复杂。”

  Choson Exchange’s focus on business skills contrasts with other North Korea-related charities that concentrate on helping refugees from the country, or drawing attention to its appalling system of prison camps and political repression.朝鲜交流中心专注于商业技能的培养,和其他与朝鲜有关的慈善机构形成了鲜明对比,后者主要帮助难民逃离朝鲜,或是促使人们关注该国骇人听闻的劳改营制度和政治压迫。

  But the full importance of Choson Exchange’s work may become clear only after a North Korean transition to a truly market-based economy, when it would be in dire need of people who understand modern business, says Andrei Lan-kov, a professor at Seoul’s Kookmin University. “They are one of a few groups doing something that makes sense,” he says. “The only way to change North Korea is to expose North Koreans – especially the elite – to some knowledge of the outside world.”韩国国民大学(Kookmin University)教授安德烈?兰科夫(Andrei Lankov)表示,只有当朝鲜转向真正以市场为基础的经济体制之后,朝鲜交流中心努力的意义或许才能完全体现出来,到那时,朝鲜将急切需要了解现代商业的人。“少数团体正在做有意义的事情,这个机构便是其中之一,”他说,“唯一能改变朝鲜的方式,便是让朝鲜人——尤其是精英——了解外部世界。”

  Choson Exchange tackles this in an unusually direct way: by taking its most promising trainees to Singapore to ex-pose them to the cutting edge of Asian capitalism. Permission – and resources – to travel abroad are hard to come by in North Korea, even for Pyongyang residents. Most of the trainees have never left the country, and even the exceptions have nearly always been only to northeast China.朝鲜交流中心以极为直接的方式实现这一点:将最有前途的学员送到新加坡,让他们接触亚洲资本主义的前沿阵地。在朝鲜,出国的许可和资源都很难得到,连平壤居民也不例外。大部分学员从未离开过朝鲜,就算出过国,大多也只去过中国东北。

  Yet the organisation has been allowed to take groups of North Korean public employees on seven trips to Singapore that include tours of shops and meeting businesspeople and a member of parliament. The city-state is “a fantastic platform from which to engage North Korea”, says Mr Abrahamian, as it offers an example of an Asian state that achieved rapid development while maintaining strong state control.但该中心却被允许带领朝鲜公务人员7次访问新加坡,参观商店、会见商界中人和一名议会成员。阿布拉哈米扬表示,新加坡是外界“与朝鲜接触的绝佳平台”,因为它是一个既能迅速发展、又能维持强大政府控制的亚洲国家。

  Participants have been sent out into a Singapore shopping district to compile a report using technical marketing frameworks. They are trained in online research – a skill that, for now, they cannot use at home – and in creating a product brand, including logos, slogans and voice-overs.学员被送到新加坡的商业区,利用技术营销框架编写报告。他们接受在线研究(这项技能他们目前他们还无法在国内使用)的培训,并学习创作产品商标,包括标识、标语和附加说明。

  The experience has been overwhelming for many, says Mr See. “On the last trip, it was difficult to pull them out of shops.” But there have been no attempts to avoid returning to Pyongyang.施国兴表示,对许多人而言,这种体验是无法抗拒的。“上一次访问时,很难把他们从商店里拉出来。”但迄今还没有人企图不回到平壤的。

  “Some of them actually want to go home early,” says Mr See. “It’s: ‘I have work to do, money to make’. Busy business people are the same everywhere.”“事实上,有些人希望早点回国,”施国兴表示,“他们想的是:‘我要干活,要挣钱。’忙碌的商人不论在哪里都是一样的。”

  延伸阅读:朝鲜悄悄推进经济开放

  朝鲜国有媒体两年前曾写道,指望朝鲜“改变政策”,“就跟想让太阳从西边升起一样,只是个愚蠢和幼稚的梦想。”

  不过,尽管朝鲜愤怒地驳斥了改革说,但其一直在研究制定给予公民和外国投资者更大经济自由的措施,并从国外汲取经验。

  一名高级官员去年表示,朝鲜已试验了允许部分农民保留很大一部分农产品的计划,并已开始赋予流通行业更大的自主权。

  朝鲜也越来越重视支持经济特区(SEZ)——外国投资者在经济特区可享受税收优惠。朝鲜是在仿效中国的这项创新,经济特区开启了中国经济持续三十年的增长。去年,朝鲜宣布了建设14个新经济特区的计划。

  中国和俄罗斯对朝鲜这一计划、尤其是现有的罗先(Rason)经济特区给予了支持。上月,罗先经济特区接入了俄罗斯铁路网。

  但驻平壤的企业顾问迈克尔?海(Michael Hay)表示,许多西方投资者在等待国际社会取消针对朝鲜的大量制裁措施,然后再向该国投资。

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