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2014年07月08日 【我要咨询】 】 来源:清华在线

  They tell you not to fix a meeting before 11am at the Lions advertising festival in Cannes because the guests will either have been up so late toasting their own creativity, or are so jet-lagged after flying in from Los Angeles, that they will not show up. I should have listened.在戛纳国际广告节(Cannes Lions advertising festival)上,他们会这么劝告你:不要把会议安排在上午11点以前,因为受邀来宾要么头天晚上为了庆祝自己的创意而熬夜到太晚,要么在从洛杉矶飞来以后还没倒过来时差,以至于根本不会出现。我本应听从这些建议。

  There were other signs at Cannes this week that the advertising industry operates in its own time zone. Seven years after the launch of the iPhone, the smartphone is reaching saturation in developed markets, as IDC, the research group, reported this week. Yet advertisers still treat it as a newfangled invention yet to prove its worth.不久前在戛纳,还有其他迹象表明广告业有属于自己的节奏。研究公司IDC不久前发表的报告称,在iPhone面世7年后的今天,发达国家市场中的智能手机普及率已接近饱和。但广告商们仍将智能手机看成是一种价值有待证明的新鲜发明。

  In theory, the smartphone is the new television – a consumer technology device through which everyone absorbs information and entertainment. As an advertising medium, however, it is useless by comparison. Not only is there no equivalent in value to the 30-second advertisement but the industry is struggling even to imagine one.从理论上说,智能手机是新时代的电视——每个人都能通过这种消费者科技设备获取信息,享受娱乐。但作为一种广告媒介,智能手机相比之下显得毫无价值。不仅是手机广告与30秒电视广告在价值上无法相提并论,广告行业甚至很难想出一种手机广告模式。

  In a generation, we have shifted from parents trying to stop teenagers slumping in front of the TV to young people losing all interest in the box. US teens are so occupied with social networks and mobile video that they watch only about 21 minutes of broadcast TV a week.在一代人的时间里,局面已经从家长试图阻止青少年无精打采地坐在电视机前,变成了年轻人对电视完全失去兴趣。如今的美国青少年是如此痴迷于社交网络和移动视频,以至于他们平均每周只观看大约21分钟的电视节目。

  The ad industry is suffering from attention deficit disorder – the audience that once sat obediently in front of TV spots lovingly devised by its creatives is hard to pin down. Millennials are out there, on their phones and tablets, but they are as likely to be tweeting angrily about a brand as noticing its ads in the content stream.广告行业目前深为注意力不足症(attention deficit disorder)所苦——观众一度曾乖乖地坐在电视机前,收看由创意人士倾注心血制作的广告,而现在,想抓住他们的注意力则已变得非常困难。千禧一代已经来了,玩着他们的手机或者平板电脑,但正如他们可能在内容流中注意到某个品牌的广告一样,他们同样也有可能在推特上发文怒批这个品牌。

  “I am nervous about us all being out of a job in a year from now if Reed Hastings [chief executive of Netflix] takes over the world,” Laura Desmond, chief executive of Starcom MediaVest, one of the largest advertising buying agencies, told a Cannes gathering. Netflix, the video streaming service, and cable TV network HBO rely on subscription fees alone and do not carry ads.星传媒体(Starcom MediaVest)首席执行官劳拉?德斯蒙德(Laura Desmond)在戛纳的一个聚会上表示:“我很担心,如果由Netflix首席执行官里德?黑斯廷斯(Reed Hastings)来接管世界的话,我很担心我们都会在一年之内丢掉工作。”星传媒体是全球最大的广告购买代理之一。流媒体服务商Netflix以及有线电视网美国家庭电影频道(HBO),都单纯依靠用户订阅费作为收入来源,不播放广告。

  When TV came into its own in the 1960s, it brought mass and efficiency to an industry that had relied on local radio and newspapers. “Advertising was the classified ad to sell your truck or your cow,” Keith Reinhard, the industry veteran from the “Mad Men” era of the 1950s and 1960s, recalled of his childhood in rural Indiana in the 1940s.当电视在20世纪60年代开始普及时,给曾经依赖地方广播和报纸的广告行业带来了大量受众,并提高了传播效率。在《广告狂人》(Mad Men)时代(即20世纪50年代至60年代)即已入行的资深广告人基思?莱因哈德(Keith Reinhard),回忆了20世纪40年代,自己在偏远的印第安纳州乡村度过的童年。他说:“那时候广告就是转让卡车或者奶牛的那种分类广告。”

  Mass served the industry well, along with customers such as Procter & Gamble and Unilever, but is in short supply. More than 100m Americans watched the finale of Mash on CBS in 1983, compared with 10m for AMC’s Breaking Bad last year. Even hits are often streamed by the episode, without ads, on mobile devices.大规模受众使广告业从中受益,并带来了像宝洁(Procter & Gamble)和联合利华(Unilever)这样的客户,但如今这样的受众资源已经变得短缺。1983年,超过1亿名美国人收看了哥伦比亚广播公司(CBS)播出的《陆军野战医院》(Mash)大结局,而去年收看AMC电视频道《绝命毒师》(Breaking Bad)的观众则仅有1000万人。即便是大热门节目,也常会在移动设备上提供没有广告的剧集流媒体视频。

  Technology has once more broken the audience into smaller pieces. TV fragmentation is hard for advertisers but publishing is even trickier, with blogs and outlets such as BuzzFeed and The Huffington Post producing a flood of information and entertainment (the latter publishes 1,600 news items daily).技术发展再一次将观众分成了更零散的小群体。电视观众的碎片化给广告商带来了难题,出版行业的情况则更加严峻——博客以及像BuzzFeed、赫芬顿邮报网站(Huffington Post)这样的信息出口,不断产出铺天盖地的信息和娱乐内容(赫芬顿邮报网站每日发布1600条新闻)。

  Publishers complain that the rates they can charge advertisers are falling steadily, especially in mobile, but this is a problem equally for advertisers and agencies. If digital and mobile ads are not worth buying, despite the migration of the audience from traditional media, something is wrong.出版商抱怨称,他们能向广告商收取的广告费正在稳步下跌,移动端尤其如此,但这同样是广告商和广告代理要面对的问题。如果尽管受众正在远离传统该媒体,但数字和移动广告仍不值得购买,那么一定有什么地方出了问题。

  This being the advertising industry, Cannes was awash with imaginative visions of how to fix it. The surprise, given the maturity of digital and mobile technology, is how vague these visions remain. They would require a revolution both in the product itself, and its placement.戛纳充斥着有关如何解决这个问题的创造性构想,这是广告行业的本色。让人吃惊的地方在于,虽然数字和移动技术已经如此成熟,这些构想却依然如此模糊不明。要产生能够解决问题的构想,可能需要广告本身、以及广告投放方式都来一场革命。

  So far, technology has not helped advertisers. It has given viewers a tool to fight back and made them harder to find. But it need not be all troublesome; it could be used to pull the fragmented audience together again, perhaps in more precise ways than “adults aged 25 to 44”.到目前为止,技术并没有给广告商帮忙。技术为观众提供了一种反击工具,让他们得以变得更难以找到。但技术并非总是在制造麻烦——技术可被用于将分散的受众重新聚合到一起,筛选方式或许甚至还能比“25岁至44岁的成年人”更加精确。

  One example is linking the “second screen” to the first by publishing tweets and Facebooks ads at the same time as TV ads to bombard viewers who are watching TV while checking their phones or tablet. There would be no hiding place.一个例子是,通过在播出电视广告的同时、发布推特以及Facebook广告,将作为“第二屏”的移动端和作为“第一屏”的电视联结在一起,从而轮番轰炸边看电视边玩手机或者平板电脑的观众。观众将无处躲藏。

  There are other, more sophisticated (and intrusive) tactics. A person using a phone to buy products and post on social networks is producing all sorts of data useful to an advertiser; who she is, where she is and what she likes. It could, for example, be used to transmit an ad if she passed a boutique.除此之外还有其他更加复杂(并且更易招致反感)的广告策略。一个人使用手机购买商品,并将相关内容发布到社交网站,由此制造出了对广告商非常有用的各类数据,例如她是谁,她的位置以及喜好。举个例子,这些数据可用于在她路过一家精品店的时候,向她推送一条广告。

  Such techniques are in their infancy, and advertisers do not know if they will work at scale, which is what they need. Nor do they know how consumers will react. TV viewers are used to ads; it is less clear what they will accept on a mobile device that they carry around and regard as personal.这类技术目前处于发展初期,广告商尚不知道它们能否大规模投入应用,而规模正是广告商所亟需的。广告商也不知道消费者将会做出怎样的反应。电视观众对广告已经习以为常,而消费者是否会接受在自己随身携带、并视为私人物品的移动终端上出现广告,我们就不是那么清楚了。

  Even if they can be found, and are receptive, there is another difficulty – traditional ads do not work on mobiles. Tiny banners, shrunk down from the desktop (where they are already less effective) are cheap to buy for a reason. They pass by rapidly, unliked and unclicked.即使广告商能够找到这类消费者,并且这类消费者愿意接受广告,一个新的难题又跳了出来——传统的广告在移动端上效果很差。尺寸比电脑上的条幅广告更小的微型条幅广告(在电脑上这类广告的有效性已经下降),之所以便宜是有原因的。它们在受众眼前一闪而过,不讨人喜欢也无人点击。

  It is all anathema for the Mad Men of Cannes, used to painting a 30-second canvas for a captive audience. Their creations are being replaced by native ads – snappy headlines that look more like journalism than advertising. Instead of planned and crafted campaigns, they are instant responses to the Facebook zeitgeist.对于戛纳广告节上的“广告狂人”来说,上述这些都非常讨厌。他们已经习惯了面向一群无处可逃的观众,画满一幅长30秒钟的“画布”。他们的创作正在被原生广告所取代,那是一条条醒目的标题,看起来更像是新闻、而非广告。它们取代了经过精心筹划和构思的广告宣传活动,即时响应了Facebook代表的时代趋势。

  “The creatives will fight it to the last,” said one consultant. But the act that worked on TV is not pulling the same audience as before. Advertisers must find a new one and give it something it wants. To judge by Cannes, they are still dreaming.一位顾问表示:“创意人士将奋战到底。”但曾经在电视上行之有效的广告策略,已经不能像以往一样吸引同样的观众了。广告商必须找到一种新的观众,并提供一些他们愿意观看的东西。从戛纳广告节上的情况来看,这仍然只是个梦想。

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