欢迎访问清华在线!
全国分校: 更多>>
专题频道页
您所在的位置:首页 >> 资料下载 >> 复习指南 >> 2014联考英语阅读:梁思成—为什么研究中国建筑

2014联考英语阅读:梁思成—为什么研究中国建筑

分享到:
2014年05月14日 【我要咨询】 】 来源:清华在线

  作者简介:梁思成,中国著名建筑史学家、建筑师、城市规划师和建筑教育家,曾参加中华人民共和国国徽、人民英雄纪念碑等的设计,是新中国首都城市规划工作的推动者和新中国若干重大设计方案的主持者。

  内容简介:著名建筑学家梁思成先生英文文集汇编,收选其八篇文章及考察报告,配有中文译文与近百幅珍贵的建筑手绘图稿和照片。

  Architecture

  建筑

  Although the ancient Chinese never considered architecture a fine art, in China as in the West it has been the mother of the fine arts. It was through the medium of architectural decoration that painting and sculpture matured and gained recognition as independent arts.

  中国古人从未把建筑当成一种艺术,但像在西方一样,建筑一直是艺术之母。正是通过作为建筑装饰,绘画与雕塑走向成熟,并被认作是独立的艺术。

  Technique and Forms

  技术与形式

  The architecture of China is an indigenous system of construction which was conceived in the dawn of Chinese civilization and has been developing ever since. Its characteristic form is a timber skeleton or framework standing on a masonry platform and covered by a pitched roof with overhanging eaves. The spaces between the posts and lintels of the framework may be filled in with curtain walls whose sole function is to separate one portion of the building from another, or the interior from the exterior. The walls of the Chinese building, unlike those of the conventional European building, are free from the weight of the upper floors and the roof, and may be installed or omitted as required. By adjusting the proportion of the open and walled-in spaces, the architect may admit or exclude just the amount of light and air appropriate to any purpose and to any climate. Tis high degree of adaptability has enabled Chinese architecture to follow Chinese civilization wherever it has spread.

  中国建筑是一种土生土长的构筑系统,它在中国文明萌生时期即已出现,其后不断得到发展。它的特征性形式是立在砖石基座上的木骨架即木框架,上面有带挑檐的坡屋顶。木框架的梁与柱之间,可以筑幕墙,幕墙的唯一功能是划分内部空间及区别内外。中国建筑的墙与欧洲传统房屋中的墙不同,它不承受屋顶或上面楼层的重量,因而可随需要而设或不设。建筑设计者通过调节开敞与封闭的比例,控制光线和空气的流入量,一切全看需要及气候而定。高度的适应性使中国建筑随着中国文明的传播而扩散。

  As the Chinese system of construction evolved and matured, rules like the orders of classical European architecture were developed to govern the proportion of the different members of the building. In buildings of a monumental character the order is enriched by tou-kung, sets of brackets on top of the columns supporting the beams within and roof eaves without. Each set consists of tiers of outstretching arms called kung, cushioned with trapezoidal blocks called tou. The tou-kung arefunctional members of the structure, carrying the beams and permitting the deep overhang of the eaves. As they evolved, they assumed different shapes and proportions. In earlier periods they were simple and large in proportion to the size of the building; later they became smaller and smaller and more complicated. Hence they serve as a convenient index to the date of construction.

  当中国的构筑系统演进和成熟后,像欧洲古典建筑柱式那样的规则产生出来,它们控制建筑物各部分的比例。在纪念性的建筑上,建筑规范由于采用斗拱而得到丰富。斗拱由一系列置于柱顶的托木组成,在内部它承托木梁,在外部它支承屋檐。一攒斗拱中包括几层横向伸出的臂,叫“拱”,梯形的垫木叫“斗”。斗拱本是结构中有功能作用的部件,它承托木梁又使屋檐伸出得远一些。在演进过程中,斗拱有多种多样的形式和比例。早期的斗拱形式简单,在房屋尺寸中占的比例较大;后来斗拱变得小而复杂。因此,斗拱可作为房屋建造时代的方便的指示物。

  The planning problem of the Chinese architect is not that of partitioning a single building, since the framing system makes the interior partition mere screens, but of placing the various buildings of which a Chinese house is composed.

  由于框架结构使内墙变为隔断,所以中国建筑的平面布置不在于单幢房屋之内部划分,而在于多座不同房屋的布局安排,中国的住宅是由这些房屋组成的。

标签:考研 在职考研 在职联考
【版权及免责声明】【打印】 【关闭】

公开课程推荐

  • [十月GCT考试]

    5月24日 GCT综合备考说明会
    上课时间:5月24日13:30-17:20
    上课地点:紫光大楼116
    名师:罗保华 褚宝增

  • [五月同等学力]

    同等学力真题预定
    活动时间:3月~6月
    活动地点:清华在线官网
    名师:清华在线

最新购课

关于我们 | 付款方式 | 全国购卡点 | 法律声明 | 诚招代理 | 联系方式 | 帮助中心 | 友情链接 | 信息中心投诉、举报
北京紫光在线教育科技有限公司 客服热线:010-62771166,62781166,传真:010-62781112  清华在线页面改进建议
京ICP证060182号 京ICP备11016158号
北京市公安局海淀分局备案单位编号:1101081749 。