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在职联考:MPA的英语知识(二)
2016年02月25日 【我要咨询】 来源:清大在线

   need与have to 用法辨析

 
  1) need表示需要,主要用于否定句和疑问句。用于疑问句,肯定回答用must,否定回答用needn’t。have to表示他人或客观情况要求"必须",也可以翻译为"不得不",have to否定形式意思是"不一定"或"没有必要"。
 
  【例如】
 
  You needn’t come if you don’t want to.
 
  I don’t think you need be so polite to her.
 
  You don’t have to work so hard if you just want to pass Band 4.
 
  Because of the heavy rain, the children have had to get up earlier than usual this week.
 
  It was very kind of you to do the washing-up, but you ____it.
 
  A) mustn’t have done   B) would not have done
 
  C) might not have done   D) didn’t have to
 
  本句译为:你把这些东西洗了,你真是太好了。但是你没有必要洗。must, would, might后面接动词的完成式,都很少用否定式,而didn’t have to表示没有必要,符合题意,故答案为D.
 
  2) need后面接动词的完成式,主要用于否定句,表示本可不必做某事。
 
  【例如】
 
  You ____ all those calculations! We have a computer to do that sort of thing.
 
  A) needn’t have done   B) must not have done
 
  C) shouldn’t have done   D) can not have done
 
  "needn’t +不定式完成式"表示"本来不必做,但实际做了"。题意是:你没有必要做全部计算,这类计算我们用计算机来做。故答案为A.
 
  三、不用than的比较
 
  并不是所有的形容词表示比较时都用than,英语中有几个以-or结尾源于拉丁语的形容词,由于其原级已具有比较的含义,在表示比较时不用than,而用to。这类形容词不多,计有:anterior / prior to(先于),posterior to (在……之后),superior to(优于),inferior to(劣于),junior to(年幼于),senior to(年长于)。
 
  【例如】
 
  This task is prior to all others.
 
  He thinks he is superior to his classmates because his father is a very important people.
 
  The Red Army was inferior in equipment but superior in morale to the enemy.
 
  My arrival in Beijing is posterior to that of our manager.
 
  It happened prior to my arrival.
 
  The official’s rank is senior to his father’s.
 
  Mary is two years senior to me, and her sister is junior to me by three years.
 
  四、几个含有than的结构
 
  1) no more than
 
  只,仅仅,只不过是(=only),后面接名词或数词,在句中起形容词作用。例如:The street is no more than two miles long.这条大街只有两英里长。What he is saying is no more than a joke.他所讲的只不过是个玩笑而已。The estimate of 20012 tons was probably no more than another wild assumption of theirs.这个二万零一十二吨的估计数字,也许只不过是他们的又一个胡编乱造。
 
  2) no more... than (= not...any more than)
 
  和……一样不(not...any more than)。Than前后都是否定的含义。
 
  A whale is no more a fish than a horse is. (= A whale is not a fish any more than a horse is.)鲸和马都不是鱼。(鲸之非鱼类,正如马之非鱼类。)
 
  My elder brother is no more a singer than I am.我哥哥和我都不是歌唱家。
 
  They will no more sell their freedom for roubles than for dollars.他们既不会以他们的自由换取美元,也将同样不会以自由换取卢布。
 
  The little man was ____one meter fifty high.
 
  A) almost more than B) hardly more than  C) nearly D) as much as
 
  hardly more than用来表示"仅仅"。根据句意:这个小个子男人仅有1.5米高,应选择B.

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